A brief observation in review!
How African American Economic Development was temporarily, (I say temporarily, because we are presently awakening the deep sleep of cowardice) ERADICATED in The United States of America - Blacks can never afford to halt the progression of Economic Development! by Paul Stewart, Real World Economic Development Academy (Real World EDA)
Between 1865 and 1923, Blacks were at the height of Economic Development Success, until whites realized, they (Blacks) were the threat to their survival for economic superiority. Also make note, many Black progressive organizations in this era were on the move: The Colored National Labor Union, The National Afro-League, The Woman's Era, the first newspaper by and for African-American women, The Union League or Black and Tan faction, and Black Nationalist group, The UNIA, Marcus Garvey (originated "The Pan-African flag, also referred to as the UNIA flag, Afro-American flag or Black Liberation flag, consisting of three equal horizontal bands of colored RED, BLACK and GREEN, in New York City at a Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) conference, 1920, also within this era. On the flag, the RED stood for blood, both the blood shed by Africans who died in their fight for liberation, and the shared blood of the AFRICAN PEOPLE. BLACK represent, Black people and GREEN, a symbol of growth and the natural fertility of Africa 1865 til 1920 – The Era Blacks were Gaining Wealth and the Era Whites Destroyed it:
The Turning Point for Black Economic Development in America! Blacks acquired more than 20 million acres of land during this time. Also, during this time period, President Andrew Johnson who replaced Lincoln after Lincoln was assassinated six weeks in office, rolled back Reconstruction gains and favored southerners, in their quest for economic and political power they once had during slavery. What was at stake was the economic and political dominance of the south.
There were two Senses within the United States that were very critical to the Economic and Political Development of the Blacks after the Civil War, that shape this country to non-Black dominance. (Senses 1) History of this country from 1865 till 1877, following THE Civil War (1861 till 1865) (Senses 2) The attempted transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress from states with economies dependent upon slavery to states in which former slaves were citizens with civil rights. With the three Reconstruction Amendments (13th, 14th, and 15th), the era saw the first amendments to the U.S. Constitution in decades.
There were three Visions during this era: They are as follows: Vision 1: The reconciliationist vision, which was rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war, had brought. Vision 2: The white supremacist vision, which included terror and violence Vision 3: The emancipationist vision, which sought full freedom, citizenship, and Constitutional equality for African Americans the Reconstruction Era Congressional Elections of 1866 and Race Riots Against Blacks!
Elections followed outbreaks of violence against Blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riots that same year. The elections provided Republicans with the majority in Congress (bringing forth, the 14th Amendment) Freedmen’s Bureau/U.S. Army as protection for the freed blacks in the south. Additionally, the formulation of the KKK (initially in Pulaski, Tennessee, the state in which President Andrew Johnson served as Senator before selected to run as Abraham Lincoln's VP. Make note, Lincoln appointed a politician from the south because he was attempting to display unity in government and also make note, at the time Johnson was the only southern politician to go along with this strategy by Lincoln, but once Lincoln was assassinated and he became President, his ideology turned toward his fellow southern brothers in the world of politics. He sought to reverse Reconstruction and after his impeachment, life continued hard for Blacks as expected).
Later on, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant, saw the massive violence against blacks during this time frame and he along with Congress, initiated what was called, The Enforcement Acts, (an Act that would attempt to safeguard the slaughter received by Blacks from the whites in the south, after the Civil War) better known as the KKK Acts, up to about 1871. Grant passes 3 KKK Acts, because the violence was so rampant against the free slaves during this period, it took 3 Acts to get the message across, even though it did no good for Blacks. In addition to the KKK, whites also constructed in this time period", The Red Shirts and White League. Democrats who opposed Reconstruction, gained control of the House of Representatives, 1874, while Rutherford B. Hayes was President. During this particular time, the rampant murders and beating of blacks in the south became uncontrollable by the U.S. Government. During this time, all remaining U.S. troops were removed from the south, unfortunately leaving the Blacks defenseless, thus whites took over the economic and political development and instituted Jim Crow, and the Black Codes and thus, Blacks were virtually placed back on the plantation.
Blacks were abandoned by the United States Government. Also, within this period (1865-1925): These were the years that were the best times for Blacks as it pertains to Wealth Generation as a People. This was the era of the “Black Wall Streets”, Blacks gained the most wealth at any time in U.S. History during this timeframe. Blacks had according to the U.S. census of 1920, 20 million acres of land in their possession. Blacks were gaining wealth with their independence. Make note, whites became angry toward this new found wealth of Blacks, so during the period while wealth was gaining for Blacks, came forth the 8 bloodiest riots against blacks in U.S. History. These were 8 Black Successful Communities destroyed by White Neighbors out of hatred that Blacks, just out of slavery and against all odds, were continuously moving forward as a people, - (The Atlanta Riots 1906), (The Tulsa Riots of 1921), (The Chicago Riots of 1919, called “The Red Summer”), The Rosewood Massacre, 1923), (The Washington, D.C. Race Riots, 1919), (The Knoxville, Tennessee Race Riots of 1919), (The New York City Draft Riots of 1863), (The East St. Louis Massacre, 1917). Also, during this era (1865-1925), a mass immigration was implemented to counter the Black Progressiveness, economically and politically within America.
Between 1900 and 1909, 2 million immigrants came to the United States from Austro-Hungarian Empire 1.9 million from Italy 1.5 million from Russia Almost 350, 000 from Ireland 145,000 from Greece. The Importance of Black Economic Development: Economic Empowerment or Economic Dependency?
In 2013, the African American consumer market exceeded the trillion-dollar mark for the first time. To place this figure in perspective, that market is larger than the market for the entire nation of Spain. Robert Weems describes the rise of African American purchasing power since the end of slavery and what it means for both Black Americans and the entire economy. The Trillion Dollar African American Consumer Market: Economic Empowerment or Economic Dependency: www.blackpast.org
MAKE NOTE: There are interesting parallels between the civil rights vetoes of President Johnson (the President who paved the way for southern whites to retake the south and his reverse policies of Reconstruction) and President Ronald Reagan. Both invoked the specter of a Federal bureaucracy trampling upon the rights of white citizens, and both suggested that extending equality to blacks somehow discriminated against whites. Both were in opposition to civil rights legislation. Thus, you have Reverse Discrimination in effect.
Also, see, The Joint Economic Committee United States Congress Report/4/14/15 on Employment, Income, wealth and poverty, Housing and Education, also see the United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner – Statement on visit to the USA, by Professor Philip Alston, United Nations Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights.
As you can see, Economic Development is a key and the Black man and Black Woman were kept out of the American dream, especially entering the new markets and economic opportunities, as they opened up after the Civil War when America advanced out west into various business innovations and markets. The time has come to refocus back to "Do For Self", Economic Development!
Anything the Black focus on, the Black master it, not simply learn it, but master it! Blacks have always been the threat, from the Economic Development perspective, since the end of the Civil War.
www.realworldeda.com, Paul Stewart, Director/Founder 'Providing the economic development leadership educational and strategic groundwork for sustainable communities of African Descent"
What a perspective, all of sudden I am starving for knowledge! I want Economic Development!